* Primary Text *: Kundu, Cohen & Dowling (= K), * Fluid Mechanics
(2016, 6th ed., Academic Press)*

* Topic A * ( Chap 1 = K: 1; and K: 3 )
** Kinematics and dynamics of fluids **

Continuum hypothesis; fluid model. Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations; material derivative. Simplest dynamical equations (conserve mass, momentum): inviscid Euler's equations. Kinematics; relative motion near a point. Streamfunction; streamlines, streaklines, pathlines.

* Topic B * ( K: 4, 13 ) ** Navier-Stokes (+ rotation) and simple
Bernoulli equations **

Stress-strain relations; stress tensor; viscous forces. Navier-Stokes equations: continuity and momentum equations. Thermal energy equation. Equations in noninertial rotating frame (thus with Coriolis forces). Bernoulli equations; simplest examples of inviscid flows.

* Topic C * ( K: 5 ) ** Vorticity concepts **

Vorticity dynamics; vortex lines and tubes. Kelvin's circulation theorem. Vorticity equation in inertial and rotating frames. Taylor-Proudman theorem. Potential vorticity.

* Topic D * ( K: 4.11 ) ** Dynamic similarity and scaling **

Scale analysis; dynamic similarity. Concept of viscous boundary layers and inviscid external flows.

* Topic E * ( K: 7, 14 ) ** INVISCID potential (irrotational) flows
**

2-D potential flows: inviscid and irrotational. Cauchy-Riemann conditions; Laplace's equation. Complex analytic functions as generators of simple potential flows. Superpose simple flow building blocks. Flow past circular cylinders; circulation added. Forces on bodies; lift and circulation. Conformal mapping: flat plates to circles to wings that fly. Phenomenology of flow separation.

* Topic F * ( K: 8 ) ** Gravity waves and linearization concepts **

Surface and interfacial gravity waves, irrotational; deep and shallow water waves. Linearization involved in posing the problem. Internal gravity waves. Phase velocity, group velocity and dispersion relations. Wave energy fluxes. Nonlinear wave steepening; hydraulic jumps. Barotropic and baroclinic modes.

* Topic G * ( K: 9 ) ** Laminar VISCOUS incompressible flows **

Exact solutions of steady plane-parallel flows, Couette and Poiseuille. Unsteady impulsive flows. Flow due to oscillating plate.

* Topic H * ( K: 6 ) ** Computational fluid dynamics **

Discussion of approaches and algorithms used to numerically simulate 2-D and 3-D nonlinear flows. Finite difference and spectral representations; incompressible, anelastic and fully compressible treatments. Examples from current GFD and AFD research simulations.

* Topic I * ( K: 10, 13 ) ** Boundary layers **

Boundary-layer concepts; scaling and approximate equations. Self-similar solutions; Blasius boundary layer on a plate; 2-D jets. Separation of boundary layers. Boundary layers as singular perturbation problem. Ekman boundary layers in rotating system. Ekman pumping and spindown.

* Topic J * ( K: 15 ) ** Compressible flows and acoustic waves **

Compressibility effects on flows; thermodynamic relations. 1-D compressible flows; area-velocity relation. Normal shock relations; Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. Weak and strong shocks; Mach cones; oblique shock waves. Acoustic and gravity waves as linear response of stratified compressible medium; using these waves to probe the inside of a star.

* Topic K * ( K: 11, 12) ** Sampling of instability and turbulence
concepts **

Instability treated as a linear perturbation, including the effects of rotation. Onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection as a linear instability problem. Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. Nonlinear equilibration of motions. Basic concepts and properties of turbulence.